1- Hinge Joint
A hinge joint is one amongst the six joints in human skeleton and located within the ankle, elbow, and knee joints. Hinge joint is shaped between 2 bones wherever the bones will solely move on one axis to flex or extend.
Flexion and extension describe movements that have an effect on the angle between 2 components of the body. Flexion describes a bending movement that decreases the angle between a section and its extended section. Here is an example in the following image where we can see the bending of the elbow. Flexion of the shoulder or hip refers to movement of the arm or leg forward.
Extension is that the opposite of flexion, describing a straightening movement that will increase the angle between body components. once a joint will move forward and backward, like the neck and trunk, extension refers to movement within the posterior direction. as an example, once standing up, the knees square measure extended. Extension of the hip or shoulder moves the arm or leg backward. once the chin is against the chest, the pinnacle is flexed, and therefore the trunk is flexed once someone leans forward.
Hinge joint never permit abduction motion, but it allows extension and flexion only
The simplest example of hinge joints within the human body form are the joints found in the knuckles of the fingers and toes. In these hinge joints, every bone is covered with a skinny layer of sleek gristle to cut back friction within the joint and to soak up the shock of the joint being compressed. The bones are enclosed by a capsule of powerful fibrous tissuelined with membrane. The joint capsule at these joints forms the knuckle that's visible through the skin that covers it and make sure the free movement of the hinge joints.
The elbow considered as advanced hinge joint that exists between the arm bone of the higher arm and the elbow bone and radius of the forearm. The elbow is subjected to a lot of stronger forces than the knuckles of the fingers and toes, and therefore contains many ligaments that reinforce its structure. The arm bone and radial collateral ligaments facilitate to carry the elbow bone and radius to the arm bone and reinforce the joint. Similar to the elbow, the hinge joint between the higher leg and the lower leg bone which supports the body’s weight whereas standing, walking, or running. it supports the complete body’s weight with very little reinforcement from the encompassing bones. This permits the knee to rotate slightlyonce flexed likewise as fancy an out sized degree of flexion. The gristle, a pad of cartilage between the thighbone and leg bone, acts as a damper to forestall collisions between the bones throughout high impact activities like running and jumping.
We can see the motion of hinge joint in the images below, the first one illustrate the bone motion and the second one illustrate the muscle motion.
2- Ball and Socket Joint
|The ball and socket joint is one amongst the 6 joints found within the human skeleton during which the spherical surface of 1 rounded bone fits into the cup-like depression of another bone. The distal bone is capable of motion around AN indefinite variety of axes, that have one common center. It permits the bone to maneuver in several places (nearly all directions).|
As seen in the below image we can find the ball and socket joint in thight and shoulder.
3- Pivot Joint
|The pivot joint is one of the 6 joints found in the human skeleton. In pivot joints, the axis of a convex body part surface is parallel with the longitudinal axis of the bone.|
4- Ellipsoid Joint
|The ellipsoid joint is one in all the 6 joints found in human skeleton that allows movement in 2 planes, permitting flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and circumduction.|
5- Saddle Joint
|The saddle joint is one of the 6 joints found in the human skeleton where the opposing surfaces square measure reciprocally concave-convex. The movements square measure are, flexion, extension, adduction, abduction; however no rotation movement allowed.|
6- Plane Joint
|A plane joint is one amongst the 6 joints found in human skeleton that, under physiological conditions, permits solely gliding movement.|
Plane joints allow sliding movements within the plane of body part surfaces. The opposed surfaces of the bones are flat or nearly flat, with movement restricted by their tight joint capsules. Plane joints are varied and are nearly always tiny, like the acromioclavicular joint between the outgrowth of the os and also the clavicle. Typically, they're found within the wrists, ankles & between the second and seventh sternocostals, bone transverse and pointed processes.